Home / Modern Technology / Essay Writing

Essay Writing

Hello so today we are going to do essay writing we will be doing how to write or make a framework for an essay and we will also see how to write the keywords that are associated with framing an essay so how to outline and how to make a framework for an essay what are the key elements that go into writing an essay see so far we have done plenty of grammar vocabulary building we have done plenty of exercises we have seen how sentences are made we have seen various parts of speeches word categories word formation collocation also at one point we have also seen how to write an email how to do Prezi and also writing a paragraph so you know that if we take care of our paragraphs the other paragraphs or the rest of the essay will take care of itself that’s the importance of paragraph and which we have already done in one of our previous classes so considering that 75% of this course is already over you have to be now extremely clear about the rest of the other remaining classes that we are going to do which are going to be all about writing and writing not just a sentence or a mere paragraph but writing extensively and I am going to explain the mechanics of longer pieces of writing you have to remember that all the things that we have been learning so far are going to come in handy from now onwards of course everything is interconnected everything is interrelated but from today onwards whatever we have done it’s going to have an impact on what we do or how you approach writing complex pieces especially we are talking about technical kind of writing and academic writing so please recall please don’t ignore any of the classes that we have already done and all the topics that we have already done I would want you I would like you to revise whatever we have been doing so far in order to approach the subsequent classes including today’s class as you are well aware of written composition remains at the center of our education system why do I say that you have to know that written works carry the maximum weight in our grading and assessment system especially at University and Institute level you know that written works test students on several parameters such as grammar syntax or construction of sentences structuring sentences vocabulary punctuation and text organization so all these things are evaluated on the basis of your written compositions you also know that compositions may range between one paragraph report and also extensive report writing and writing 300 pages of doctoral theses or your I’m decker I’m SC theses so all these things require extensive awareness about the mechanics of writing so in my discussion on essay writing I will focus on the most common types of academic writing that our students need particularly in our Indian context you may ask that what is their purpose what is the relevance of an essay like any other skill as a writing is a complex skill and it is a means of communication all writing using even email writing letter writing is a means of communication essay writing is a notch higher is a notch above because of the the complexities of skills involved say am very often you will realize that if you practice writing it impacts your other skills as well the more you write the better you are able to organize your thoughts it will also help you in speaking better and also in reading better and all these things in effect your listening abilities as well you know you understand the nuances of words you understand vocabulary fast you don’t have to really grow up around with and understanding or inferring the meanings of various words so everything is interconnected you know that we have done so much of reading and listening as well and you know how much let’s say reading is connected to listening and how much writing is connected to speaking so all these skills are interconnected and they should be given equal attention now I said I think can be descriptive it can be narrative and it can be analytical descriptive is when when we describe we have been describing processes remember in some of our earlier classes we have seen how descriptions are then how equipment are described how processes are described narrative is when you narrate something and let’s say you’ll write a narrative about your personal experience how you felt about doing this research it becomes a narrative almost like sharing your thoughts telling a story analytical this is something that most of you need at the essay level which means that you have to analyze a given question approach a given problem and discuss it and discuss it how for and you have to present arguments for and against that is approaching analytically of course there are various types of essays if you pick up any book of essay writing it would give you bullet points about various types of essays we will do that also soon but understand that generally this is what we need descriptive is more elementary narrative maybe more creative analytical is more academic because you speak for and against an argument you take a stand descriptive is more like how I did something or how this let’s say how this experiment was conducted and I have to right a short report a short description of it you don’t need to be terribly creative in writing a description for analytical writing you have to be not creative but you have to be acutely sensitive to the nuances of the English language so just writing a string of sentences wouldn’t do in the analytical kind of writing one key element of writing an essay is that it’s important to be aware of your own strengths and limitations for example if you have a choice let’s say you have been given a choice in your exam or by your instructor that here is a choice here’s a list of topics write anything write an essay on one or two of the given choices now always decide on a subject that you have good command-and-control on or you feel strongly about for example you may have a stronger opinion on let’s say traffic condition of your city rather than the state of the United Nations yeah or the role of the United Nations in promoting world peace you will be more equipped to tackle competently what you are comfortable with style is another thing always be careful about your style it is important that you use the right kind of tone please be very clear about the tone you employ your tone has to be in accordance with the general nature of the essay for instance if your topic is violence in contemporary society don’t approach the si in a light-hearted tone it’s a serious issue role of women in society these are serious issues we don’t banter about these things we don’t crack jokes about these things so please remember that there are plenty of opportunities for us to be light-hearted about but not when you approach an academic and a serious essay you have to adopt a very formal tone a serious tone then you are approaching a serious topic and finally be careful about employing a personal point of view the use of you know constantly saying I believe I think or in my opinion in my view it should be avoided if si is of objective and scientific nature you have to be more detached more impersonal coming to the important elements in an essay you always begin with an introduction when you go to introduction remember that you have to explain why the general topic of the essay is relevant and then you put the essay in context of it your thesis sentence should include your introduction of course an introduction should end with a specific thesis statement this could be the major argument of your essay so introduction where you explain why the general topic of your essay is relevant you put the s in context and then introduction should end with a specific thesis statement this is the main argument after establishing the context you move on to the next paragraph si si writing is all about mastering paragraphing as well you cannot have one single block running into five pages or two pages or even one page there has to be necessarily break up in paragraphing so next paragraph should be the so called body after introduction there is body of paragraphs you can have depending on the length of your essay so assuming it’s a 300 or 500 then four to five paragraphs in body should be sufficient it could be more but five four to five maximum six could be sufficient or should be self sufficient these paragraphs contain argument evidence supporting statements and topics that aid and help the thesis in a thesis statement in standing now you know what is a topic sentence topic sentence is of we are talking about the body of the paragraph by body of the essay so you introduce the topic at the beginning of each body paragraph and this should relate directly to the rest of the paragraph and link them to the thesis statement and then you move on to do supporting sentences they should contain your argument analysis of your data and facts if you need to quote something or you need to tell an anecdote particularly in linear pieces of writing you need to give examples supporting details in order to aid your topic sentence you should have at least three supporting sentences and that’s a standard but it could be more so you should have at least three sentences to support each topic sentence and then make good use of transition moving from one paragraph to another so when we talk about transition you should focus on the final sentence of the body paragraph that links it to the next paragraph we will just talk about it in detail and then this should go on for the rest of the essay so how you develop body remember you should not introduce two contrasting ideas or two new ideas in the same para while doing paragraph we have already talked about it that each paragraph should contain one main idea if you may recall we have done something on Isaac Newton where I do your attention to the fact that each paragraph had something new to say with supporting details so please go back to your earlier classes and their lectures if you need more explanation about what’s a main idea how how to identify a main idea and then of course when you are done with your arguments for and against you have conclusion conclusion summarizes the general points and general theme of the essay and please remember in conclusion you no longer have the liberty to introduce new information please remember that many a time I have no just that his students include something that is absolutely new in the last final paragraph this is not right this is not the right thing or correct thing to do please avoid this so to reiterate a good essay contains introduction are there some general information about the topic you have to make the reader interested I’m talking about an educated reader to be interested in what you are writing and establish the context write your thesis statement you have to write your body with topic sentences supporting the argument and giving details examples data explanations etcetera it should go on supporting that way and then marking transition from one para to another so this is the way general body of an essay goes now please look at this slide and let’s look at this sample this is an introduction and in the same part please note that I have for your own convenience I have given two subheadings intro and context actually this is one single paragraph please note in order to make you understand what is introduction and what is context I have given separate paragraphs but this is not the way to actually practice it this is just for explanation so introduction a major change that has occurred that has occurred in the Western family is an increased incidence in divorce whereas in the past divorce was a relatively rare occurrence in recent times it has become quite commonplace this change is borne out clearly in census figures for example 30 years ago in Australia only one marriage in turn ended in divorce nowadays the figure is more than one three in this essay I will seek to critically examine so look at what the writer is doing is establishing the context here therefore the subheading you should not be writing this way please avoid giving such kinds of subheadings in academic essays so the context in this essay what is that a writer trying to do he states that he will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for the divorce phenomenon and also consider the social policy implications that each EX explanation carries with it it will be argued that I have left it here it will be argued that so this is how you construct a paragraph or introductory paragraph introduce the main idea the thesis what is the problem he has given some examples how the rate of divorce is increasing particularly in the Western world and then establishing the context what am I going to do here what is his intention to do here let me take you to another example please look at the slide this is a sample text for the body of the sentence look at the topic sentence and then look at the supporting details I’ll read it out for you academic performance is another key factor that was consistently cited as a factor that influences a student staying in school and graduating now see this is a part of an essay where the writer is trying to understand various reasons for high school dropouts you know when children don’t complete their higher studies higher academics so what what are the reasons so this is from the body these are not the introduction the introduction is for that you will have to read the entire essay I have given the source if you may wish you can look at the complete essay Here I am just trying to explain how one argument is constructed so then you look at the supporting detail this is not the way you have to write again please pay attention to these facts you don’t have to write topic sentence and supporting detail in your formal essay I am doing here or – just to make you understand things better so several research articles cited that the road to academic success starts early in the education system both school readiness and 3rd grade reading proficiency have been cited as indicators of future academic success after the 3rd grade children are no longer learning to read but are now reading to learn helping struggling students in the 3rd grade to read at or above reading proficiency will help be more prepared for success in the future research has also indicated that success in middle school is a key indicator of whether a student will drop out of high school in middle school a student is bombarded with many social changes that affect success in school the transition from elementary school where children are primarily in one class with the same classmates and teacher to middle school where students are rotating classes teachers and classmates is a difficult transition for some students the relationship with their teachers isn’t as strong due to the fact that they have multiple subjects this makes it difficult for students to get the attention they need research has indicated that success in middle school is a strong indicator for success in high school so this is the body and this is just one reason and one of our school dropout academic performance and then various reasons given for the drop in academic performances the full-text is available on this link please look at it this is the reference for the full-text a good use of markers signal words and linking words you are already very much familiar with these things we have been doing a lot of practice with linking words for example when you introduce something you use a word like nowadays these days when you describe consequences you say as a consequence as a result resultantly consequently therefore does you also know when we give more information than you say furthermore or moreover or in addition etcetera and of course in conclusion you say so in finally to summarize and in conclusion so these are the standard words that you use you are already familiar with these words make good use of this in the previous message that we have just seen on high school dropouts see how well linking words are connected or woven into the body of the text I would like you to identify at least 10 linking words from the paragraphs or the passage that we have just seen now let me show you another sample please look at the slide this is called again we are going to pay attention to some linkers and this is a descriptive type of passage of course full passage or full essay is not given here I have just given one section one part of the essays on CCTV so CCTV and I have please notice I have highlighted all the linkers please take a look CCTV is a visual surveillance technology designed for monitoring a variety of environments and activities all at the same time CCTV systems typically involve a dedicated communications link between cameras in the field and monitors at one or more control centers systems can be made up of technically mature analog cameras and image storage devices or newly developed digital cameras and image storage devices or a mix of the two technologies CCTV systems may provide real-time time-lapse event or digitally recorded surveillance information to help in detecting responding to investigating and providing evidence for security safety and related incidents a CCTV system may also be used to prevent security breaches by allowing security personnel to monitor access control systems add in entry points to secure areas now say it is a very technical kind of writing it is not trying to impress you with a lot of things with the plenty of jargon it is all very technical kind of vocabulary and basic minimal use of linking words but effectively used in the high school dropout a second paragraph or in there in that particular essay you have a wide range of linking words and signal words but that’s the demand of that kind of a passage here persistent use or continuous use of and an R and N and R and also okay should be enough they nothing that a writer can actually do to do this kind of or to write this kind of description but in that one in the previous passage a writer can so that’s the difference however you as writers I would strongly suggest that expand your vocabulary and try to use a variety of markers and signals and linking words in your writing now here is an exercise for you extract is quite analytical please look at the slide this is your exercise fill in the blanks with linking words thinking about society using surveillance as a concept enables us to mount an ethical social and special critique of the information processing practices – a part of the way society is formed governed and managed here you have to fill in a reference word it enables us to question and evidence its impact on the social fabric on discrimination trust accountability transparency access to services mobility freedoms community and social justice – it enables us to engage in debates with regulators businesses and journalists about the consequences of their surveillance based activities – instead of thinking about surveillance as a single all-knowing oppressive force as George Orwell depicts in the novel 1984 we prefer to think of it as something which is woven into everyday life and that is more complex and multi-layered the Kobalt high-tech world of the spy of the all-seeing evil despots are – tiny aspects of the surveillance society begin – by thinking about the many different activities in which we engage during the course of a single day at different times we interact with surveillance as part of these activities – workers performance information is collected by the organizations for which we work managers use that information to let us know how we are performing in our jobs and how we can improve in future I would like you to discuss this exercise and do this exercise in pairs or in groups small groups of course and choose a variety of signal words perhaps you can think of more words then that the S actually uses okay so here’s the answer answer list the first was which moreover so but for example as the full text is given on this particular link but I would still want you to approach the SI all over again a passage sorry all over again and see if you can come up with a different set of answers the answer that I have shown are taken from the text itself but if you think that you can come up with a different list different answers please give it a try and see if you’re writing reads better now I’ll talk about using a hook in writing an essay hook not to be confused with your scientific Hookes law this is a hook while writing academic essays so please look at the slide here is a sample text and how to use a hook now new technologies above all the computer facilitates surveillance in ways that Max Weber Franz Kafka or George Orwell never dreamed of but neo hardware and software do not on their own create new surveillance indeed must surveillance occurs because in the world of modernity people prefer a private existence which prompts the development of systems to authenticate their activities in the public world presenting a driver’s license to a police officer from within a private car makes the point well of course and now of course is your hook transition from one paragraph to another and what is he saying that yob for their pride for the sake of their privacy people are using surveillance and of course it is ironic that the quest for privacy produces surveillance because his surveillance sort of encroaches on your privacy but here the writer makes a very efficient use of a hook where he makes a transition from the previous idea thought and connects it to the next paragraph so this is a good example of using a hook you should know that hooks help in flowing of thoughts from paragraph to paragraph writers use a hook to connect ideas between one paragraph and the next of course becomes one example of hook and you can also use words such as as well as on the contrary furthermore over the transition of an idea from one para to another please look at this particular slide it has references about writing hooks I’ve given you three useful links all right now layout of an essay is extremely important and some cardinal rules lay out of an essay so some important rules of writing a layout is that remember to be very particular about when to use capital and when to use your cases in formal and academic writing it is important to distinguish between upper and lower cases we have already talked about using contractions and abbreviations minimal use of abbreviations and contractions and contracted forms of verbs should be avoided like don’t or shouldn’t or mustn’t it should be avoided in written language avoid writing the entire essay in capital letters sometimes people do that please avoid that you should also remember not to write one line paragraphs it’s important that there should be paragraphs but there is a method to it you cannot write one essay in one breathless stone with no paragraphing at the same time avoid using one line and single line paragraphs also avoid using bullet points and numbers unless absolutely necessary and remember always to leave some space or line or a line between paragraphs now here is a list of references how to write effective essays please take a look at this slide so this was just an introduction to how to write an essay how to frame the outline and what are the key elements we will do essay writing in more detail in our next class thank you very much

Check Also

Bosnia and Herzegovina | Wikipedia audio article

Bosnia and Herzegovina listen or abbreviated B&H bosnian and serbian bosnia herzegovina BiH bosun de …