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Bosnia and Herzegovina | Wikipedia audio article

Bosnia and Herzegovina listen or abbreviated B&H bosnian and serbian bosnia herzegovina BiH bosun de i Herzegovina be Croatian Bosnia Herzegovina BiH pronounced Bosnia eyes ear China sometimes called Bosnia Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia is a country in southeastern Europe in the Balkan Peninsula Sarajevo is the capital and largest city Bosnia and Herzegovina as an almost landlocked country it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea about 20 kilometers 12 miles long surrounding the town of neom it is bordered by Croatia to the north west and south Serbia to the east and Montenegro to the southeast in the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous in the northwest it is moderately hilly and the Northeast is predominantly flatland the inland Bosnia is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate with hot summers and cold and snowy winters the southern tip Herzegovina has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic Age during and after which it was populated by several illyrian and Celtic civilizations culturally politically and socially the country has a rich history having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries in the 12th century the Bennett a of Bosnia was established which evolved into the kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire under whose rule it remained from the mid 15th to the late 19th centuries the Ottomans brought Islam to the region and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country this was followed by annexation into the austro-hungarian monarchy which lasted up until World War 1 in the interwar period Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of the kingdom of Yugoslavia and after world war ii it was granted full republic status in the newly formed socialist federal republic of yugoslavia following the dissolution of Yugoslavia the Republic proclaimed independence in 1992 which was followed by the Bosnian war lasting until late 1995 the country is one the most frequently visited countries in the region projected to have the third highest tourism growth rate in the world until 2020 Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally an internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations its cuisine winter sports its eclectic and unique music architecture and its festivals some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in southeastern Europe the country is home to three main ethnic groups or officially Constituent peoples as specified in the Constitution Bosniaks are the largest group of the three with Serbs second and Croat third a native of Bosnia and Herzegovina regardless of ethnicity is usually identified in English as a Bosnian minorities defined under the constitutional nomenclature others include Jews Roma poles Ukrainians and Turks Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three member presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group however the central government’s power is highly limited as the country is largely decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republica srp ska with a third region the Birch Co District governed under local government the federation of bosnia and herzegovina as complex and consists of 10 Canton’s Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks highly in terms of human development and has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors followed by the tourism and service sectors the country has a social security and universal health care system and primary and secondary level education as tuition free it is a member of the UN OSCE Council of Europe PFP see EFTA and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008 the country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010 when it received a membership action plan topic etymology topic the first preserved widely acknowledged mention of Bosnia as in dead Minister Ando imperio a politico geographical handbook written by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine 2/7 in the mid 10th century between 948 and 952 describing the small land Corian in greek of bose ona boson of the name is believed to have derived from the hydra gnam of the river bosnia coursing through the bosnian heartland according to full ologist anton mayor the name Bosna could derive from illyrian asterisk basin des which would derive from the proto-indo-european root boss or ba meaning the running water according to English medievalist William Miller the Slovak settlers in Bosnia adapted the Latin designation the Sante to their own idiom by calling the stream bosnia and themselves Bosniaks the name Herzegovina Herzog’s land from German word for Duke originates from Bosnian magnate Stephen vicek Kousaka s title her sake pert saag of hum in the coast hum formerly Siham Lea was an early medieval principality that was conquered by the Bosnian Bennett a in the first half of the 14th century the region was administered by the ottomans as the sanjak of herzegovina her sack within the islet of bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived herzegovina islet in the 1830s which reemerged in the 1850s after which the entity became commonly known as Bosnia and Herzegovina an initial proclamation of independence in 1992 the country s official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the name was officially changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina topic history topic topic early history topic Bosnia has been inhabited since at least the Neolithic Age the earliest Neolithic population became known in the antiquity as the illyrians celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were also notable concrete historical evidence for this period as scarce but overall it appears the region was populated by a number of different people speaking distinct languages conflict between the illyrians and Romans started in 229 BC but Rome did not complete its annexation of the region until 89 it was precisely in modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina that Rome fought one of the most difficult battles in its history since the Punic Wars as described by the Roman historian Suetonius this was the Roman campaign against a lira CIM known as bellum battle Yanam the conflict arose after an attempt to recruit illyrians and a revolt spanned for four years six to nine ad after which they were subdued in the Roman period latin-speaking settlers from the entire Roman Empire settled among the illyrians and Roman soldiers were encouraged to retire in the region following the split of the Empire between 337 and 395 ad Dalmatia and Pannonia became parts of the Western Roman Empire some claim the region was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 455 ad it subsequently changed hands between the Allens and the Huns by the sixth century Emperor Justinian had reconquered the area for the Byzantine Empire Slavs overwhelmed the Balkans in the 6th and 7th centuries illyrian cultural traits were adopted by the South Slavs as evidenced in certain customs and traditions place names etc Timothy Gregory explains topical Irian period topic the bronze culture of the illyrians an ethnic group with a distinct culture and art form started to organize itself in today’s Slovenia Croatia Bosnia and Herzegovina Serbia Kosovo Montenegro Albania and parts of northern Greece from 8th century BC illyrian tribes evolved into kingdoms the earliest recorded Kingdom in Illyria region in the western part of the balkan peninsula inhabited by the illyrians as recorded in classical antiquity was the angel in the 8th century BC the era in which we observe other illyrian kingdoms begins approximately at 400 BC and ends at 167 BC seven the Ontario dye under pleura Asst 337 BC were considered to have been a kingdom 8 the kingdom of the RDA originally a tribe from the Neretva Valley region began at 230 BC and ended at 167 BC 9 the most notable illyrian kingdoms and dynasties were those of Barre duelists of the dardan d and of Aggron of the RDA who created the last and best-known illyrian kingdom 10 Agron ruled over the RDA and had extended his rule to other tribes as well from the 7th century BC bronze was replaced by iron after which only jewelry and art objects were still made out of bronze illyrian tribes under the influence of hallstatt cultures to the north formed regional centres that were slightly different a very important role in their life was the cult of the Dead which is seen in their careful burials and burial ceremonies as well as the richness of their burial sites in northern parts there was a long tradition of cremation and burial in shallow graves while in the South the dead were buried in large stone or earth to mule I natively called gros mile that in Herzegovina were reaching monumental sizes more than 50 metres wide and 5 metres high Djiboutian tribes had an affinity to decoration heavy oversized necklaces out of yellow blue or white glass paste and large bronze fibulas as well as spiral bracelets diadem’s and helmets out of bronze foil in the 4th century BC the first invasion of Celts is recorded they brought the technique of the pottery wheel new types of fibulas and different bronze and iron belts they only passed on their way to Greece so their influence in bosnia and herzegovina is negligible celtic migrations displaced many illyrian tribes from their former lands but some Celtic and illyrian tribes mixed concrete historical evidence for this period is scarce but overall it appears the region was populated by a number of different peoples speaking distinct languages in the Neretva Delta in the South there were important Hellenistic influence of the illyrian dayers tribe their capital was Dorson in ahsani Chi near stole act the main center of ancient culture in B&H Dorson in the 4th century BC was surrounded by megalithic five meters high stone walls as large as those of Mycenae in greece composed of large trapezoid stone blocks dayers made unique bronze coins and sculptures topic middle agus topic the early Slavs raided the Western Balkans including Bosnia in the 6th and early 7th century amid the migration period and were composed of small tribal units drawn from a single Slavic Confederation known to the Byzantines as the sclavi knee whilst the related antes roughly speaking colonized the eastern portions of the Balkans tribes recorded by the ethnonym Zev Serb and Croat are described as a second ladder migration of different people during the second quarter of the seventh century who do not seem to have been particularly numerous these early Serb and Croat tribes whose exact identity is subject to scholarly debate came to predominate over the Slavs in the neighboring regions the bulk of Bosnia proper however appears to have been a territory between serving Croat rule and is not enumerated as one of the regions settled by those tribes Bosnia is first mentioned as a land Hori and Bo Sona in Byzantine Emperor Constantine for fridge’ notice dead Minister Ando imperio in the mid 10th century at the end of a chapter chapter T – entitled of the Serbs and the country in which they now dwell this has been scholarly interpreted in several ways and used especially by the Serb national ideologists to prove Bosnia as originally a Serb land other scholars have asserted the inclusion of Bosnia into chapter 32 to merely be the result of Serbian Grand Duke Kasilof s temporary rule over Bosnia at the time while also pointing out porphyra Jeanetta stay anywhere explicitly that Bosnia is a Serb land in fact the very translation of the critical sentence where the word vaasana’ Bosnia appears a subject to varying interpretation in time Bosnia formed a unit under its own ruler who called himself Bosnian Bosnia along with other territories became part of Dukla in the 11th century although it retained its own nobility in institutions in the High Middle Ages political circumstance led to the area being contested between the kingdom of Hungary and the byzantine empire following another shift of power between the two in the early 12th century Bosnia found itself outside the control of both and emerged as the Bennett a of Bosnia under the rule of local bands the first Bosnian band known by name was ban boric the second was van keulen whose rule marked the start of a controversy involving the Bosnian church considered heretical by the Roman Catholic Church in response to Hungarian attempts to use Church politics regarding the issue as a way to read claimed sovereignty over Bosnia Hulan held a council of local church leaders to renounce the heresy and embraced Catholicism in 1203 despite this thing garyun ambitions remained unchanged long after Cooling’s death in 1204 waning only after an unsuccessful invasion in 1254 during this time the population was called debris Bosnia a good Bosnians the name Serb and Croat though occasionally appearing in peripheral areas were not used in Bosnia proper Bosnian history from then until the early 14th century was marked by a power struggle between the Subic and coach Romantic families this conflict came to an end in 1320 – when Stephen the second coach romantic became ban by the time of his death in 1353 he was successful in annexing territories to the north and west as well as Zambia in parts of Dalmatia he was succeeded by his ambitious nephew TV RT ko who following a prolonged struggle with nobility and inter family strife gained full control of the country in 1367 by the Year 1377 Bosnia was elevated into a kingdom with the coronation of TV art TKO as the first Bosnian King and mile near Visoko in the Bosnian heartland following his death in 1391 however Bosnia fell into a long period of decline the Ottoman Empire had started its conquest of Europe and posed a major threat to the Balkans throughout the first half of the 15th century finally after decades of political and social instability the kingdom of Bosnia ceased to exist in 1463 after its conquest by the Ottoman Empire topic Ottoman Bosnia 1463 to 1878 topic the Ottoman conquest of Bosnia marked a new era in the country s history and introduced drastic changes in the political and cultural landscape the Ottomans allowed for the preservation of Bosnia s identity by incorporating it as an integral province of the Ottoman Empire with its historical name and territorial integrity a unique case among subjugated states in the Balkans within Bosnia the Ottomans introduced a number of key changes in the territory as socio-political administration including a new land holding system a reorganisation of administrative units and a complex system of social differentiation by class and religious affiliation the four centuries of Ottoman rule also had a drastic impact on Bosnia s population makeup which changed several times as a result of the empire s conquests frequent wars with European powers forced and economic migrations and epidemics a native Slavic speaking Muslim community emerged and eventually became the largest of the ethno-religious groups due to lack of strong Christian church organizations and continuous rivalry between the Orthodox and Catholic churches while the indigenous Bosnian church disappeared altogether ostensibly by conversion of its members to Islam the ottomans referred to them as christian ler while the Orthodox and Catholics were called Kabira kafir meaning unbeliever the Bosnian Franciscans and the Catholic population as a whole were protected by official imperial decrees and in accordance and full extent of Ottoman laws however in effect these often merely affected arbitrary rule and behavior of powerful local elite as the Ottoman Empire continued their rule in the Balkans Rumelia Bosnia was somewhat relieved of the pressures of being a frontier province and experienced a period of general welfare a number of cities such as Sarajevo and mostar were established and grew into regional centres of trade and urban culture and were then visited by ottoman traveller EV Lea Celebi in 1648 within these cities various Ottoman soul financed the construction of many works of Bosnian architecture such as the country s first library in Sarajevo madrassas a school of Sufi philosophy and a clock tower sahat Kula bridges such as the starry most bizarre s mosque and the Ghazi hüsrev Bank s mosque furthermore several Bosnian Muslims played influential roles in the Ottoman Empire’s cultural and political history during this time Bosnian recruits formed a large component of the Ottoman ranks in the battles of Mohacs and curb Eva field while numerous other Bosnians rose through the ranks of the Ottoman military to occupy the highest positions of power in the empire including Admirals such as matrac XI NASA generals such as ISA beg ISO Kovac Ghazi hüsrev beg and Hasan Pradhan javac and sorry Suleiman pasa administrators such as Ferhat pasa sokolova can dos Bhangra dashkevich and Grand Vizier such as the influential Mehmed pasa sokolova kind– Ahmad Ibrahim Pasha some Bosnians emerged as Sufi mystics scholars such as Muhammad have Egeus goofy baz navi ali Jobbik and poets in the turkish albanian Arabic and Persian languages however by the late 17th century the Empire s military misfortunes caught up with the country and the end of the great Turkish war with the Treaty of Carla wits in 1699 again made Bosnia the Empire as westernmost province the following century was marked by further military failures numerous revolts within Bosnia and several outbursts to play the ports efforts at modernizing the Ottoman state were met with distrust growing to hostility in Bosnia where local aristocrats stood to lose much through the proposed reforms this combined with frustrations over territorial political concessions in the northeast and the plight of Slovak Muslim refugees arriving from the sanjak of Smederevo into Bosnia Island culminated in a partially unsuccessful revolt by Husein Radice czervik who endorsed a multicultural Bosnia islet autonomous from the authoritarian rule of the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud ii who persecuted executed and abolished the Janissaries and reduced the role of autonomous Pasha’s in Rumelia mahmud ii sent his grand vizier to say do bosnia island and succeeded only with the reluctant assistance of ali pasha Rizvan bigovich related rebellions were extinguished by 1850 but the situation continued to deteriorate later agrarian unrest eventually sparked the herzegovinian rebellion a widespread peasant uprising in 1875 the conflict rapidly spread and came to involve several Balkan states and great powers a situation that led to the Congress of Berlin and the Treaty of Berlin in 1878 topic austro-hungarian rule 1878 to 1918 topic at the Congress of Berlin in 1878 the austro-hungarian Foreign Minister Gyula Andrassy obtained the occupation and administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina and he also obtained the right to stationed Garrison’s in the sanjak of Novi Pazar which remained under Ottoman administration until 1908 when the austro-hungarian troops withdrew from the sanjak although austro-hungarian officials quickly came to an agreement with Bosnians tensions remained and a mass emigration of Bosnians occurred however a state of relative stability was reached soon enough and austro-hungarian authorities were able to embark on a number of social and administrative reforms they intended would make Bosnia and Herzegovina into a model colony with the aim of establishing the province as a stable political model that would help dissipate rising South Slav nationalism Habsburg rule did much to codify loss to introduce new political practices and to provide for modernization austria-hungary began to plan annexation of Bosnia and consulted German and Russian diplomats about that prospect since the 1880s but the issue was not resolved until the annexation crisis of 1908 several external matters affected status of Bosnia and its relationship with austria-hungary a bloody coup occurred in Serbia in 1903 which brought a radical anti Austrian government into power in Belgrade then in 1908 the revolt in the Ottoman Empire raised concerns the Istanbul government might seek the outright return of Bosnia Herzegovina these factors caused the austro-hungarian government to seek a permanent resolution of the Bosnian question sooner rather than later taking advantage of turmoil in the Ottoman Empire austro-hungarian diplomacy tried to obtain provisional Russian approval for changes over the status of Bosnia Herzegovina and published the annexation Proclamation on the 6th of October 1908 despite international few roar and objections to the austro-hungarian annexation Russians and their client state serbia were compelled to accept the austrian-hungarian annexation of Bosnia Herzegovina in March 1909 in 1910 Habsburg Emperor Franz Joseph proclaimed the first constant tuition in Bosnia which led to relaxation of earlier loss elections and formation of the Bosnian Parliament and growth of new political life on the 28th of June 1914 a Yugoslavian Alyss named Gavrilo Princip a member of the secret Serbian supported movement young Bosnia assassinated the heir to the austro-hungarian throne Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo an event that was the spark that set off World War 1 at the end of the war the Bosniaks had lost more men per capita than any other ethnic group in the Habsburg Empire whilst serving in the Bosnian herzegovinian Infantry known as Bosnia Caen of the austro-hungarian army nonetheless Bosnia and Herzegovina as a whole managed to escape the conflict relatively unscathed the austro-hungarian authorities established an auxiliary militia known as the shuts corpse with a mute role in the Empire’s policy of anti-serb repression shuts corpse predominantly recruited among the Muslim Bosniaks population were tasked with hunting down rebel Serbs the Chetniks in committee and became known for their persecution of Serbs particularly in serb populated areas of eastern bosnia where they partly retaliated against serbian Chetniks who in fall 1914 had carried out attacks against the Muslim population in the area the Proceedings of the austro-hungarian authorities led to around 5,500 citizens of sir beth Nissa t in bosnia and herzegovina being arrested and between 700 and 2200 died in prison while 460 were executed around 5,200 serb families were forcibly expelled from Bosnia and Herzegovina topic kingdom of Yugoslavia 1918 to 1941 topic following World War one Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the South Slavic kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes soon renamed Yugoslavia political life in Bosnia at this time was marked by two major trends social and economic unrest over property redistribution and formation of several political parties that frequently changed coalition’s and alliances with parties in other Yugoslavia jhin’s the dominant ideological conflict of the Yugoslav state between Croatian regionalism and Serbian centralization was approached differently by Bosnia s major ethnic groups and was dependent on the overall political atmosphere the political reforms brought about in the newly established Yugoslavian Kingdom saw few benefits for the Bosniaks according to the 1910 final census of land ownership and population according to religious affiliation conducted in austro-hungary Muslims Bosniaks owned ninety percent Orthodox Serbians owned 6.0% croatian catholics owned percent and others percent of the property following the reforms bosnian muslims were dispossessed of a total of 1 million 175,000 305 hectares of agricultural and forest land although the initial split of the country into 3300 blasts erased the presence of traditional geographic entities from the map the efforts of Bosnian politicians such as mehmed’s bajo ensured the 6o blasts carved up from Bosnia and Herzegovina corresponding to the six sand Jack’s from ottoman times and thus matched the country s traditional boundary as a whole the establishment of the kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929 however brought the redrawing of administrative regions into Bennett a zorb Anna Venus that purposely avoided all historical and ethnic lines removing any trace of a Bosnian entity serbo-croat tensions over the structuring of the Yugoslav state continued with the concept of a separate bosnian division receiving little or no consideration the covet Kovach basic agreement that created the Croatian Bennett a in 1939 encouraged what was essentially a partition of Bosnia between Croatia and Serbia however the rising threat of Adolf Hitler s Nazi Germany forced Yugoslavia shion’s to shift their attention following a period that saw attempts at appeasement the signing of the tripartite treaty and a coup D etat Yugoslavia was finally invaded by Germany on the 6th of April 1941 topic World War two 1941 topic once the kingdom of yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in World War two all of Bosnia was ceded to the Nazi puppet regime the independent state of Croatia ndh the ndh leaders embarked on a campaign of extermination of serbs jews Romani as well as dissident Croats and later Josip Broz Tito s partisans by setting up a number of death camps an estimated two hundred nine thousand Serbs and Montenegrins were killed on the territory of Bosnia Herzegovina during the war the use days recognized both Roman Catholicism and Islam as the National religions but held the position Eastern Orthodoxy as a symbol of Serbian identity was their greatest foe although Croats were by far the largest ethnic group to constitute the use days the vice president of the ndh and leader of the Yugoslav Muslim organization Jaffer kala Novick was a Muslim and Muslims Bosniaks in total constituted nearly 12% of the use days military and civil service Authority many Serbs themselves took up arms and joined the Chetniks a serb nationalist movement with the aim of establishing and ethnically homogeneous greater Serbian state the Chetniks in turn persecuted and killed a large number of non serbs and communist sympathizers with the muslim population of bosnia herzegovina and sansa being a primary target once captured muslim villagers were systematically massacred by the Chetniks of the 75,000 muslims who lost their lives in bosnia and herzegovina during the war approximately 30,000 mostly civilians were killed by the Chetniks a percentage of Muslims served in Nazi waffen-ss units between 64,000 and seventy nine thousand Bosnian Croats were killed between April 1941 to May 1945 of these about 18,000 were killed by the Chetniks on the 12th of October 1941 a group of 108 prominent sorry haven Muslims signed the resolution of Sarajevo Muslims by which they condemned the persecution of Serbs organized by the use days made distinction between Muslims who participated in such persecutions and the Muslim population as a whole presented information about the persecutions of Muslims by Serbs and requested security for all citizens of the country regardless of their identity starting in 1941 Yugoslavian asunder the leadership of yoseop Broz Tito organized their own multi-ethnic resistance group the partisans who fought against both axis and Chetnik forces on the 29th of november 1943 the anti-fascist Council of national liberation of Yugoslavia with Tito at its helm held a founding conference in Jackie where Bosnia and Herzegovina was reestablished as a republic within the Yugoslavian Federation in its Habsburg borders military success eventually prompted the Allies to support the partisans resulting in the successful McLane mission but Tito declined their offer to help and relied on his own forces instead all the major military offensives by the anti-fascist movement of Yugoslavia against Nazis and their local supporters were conducted in Bosnia Herzegovina and its peoples bore the brunt of fighting more than 300,000 people died in Bosnia and Herzegovina in world war ii at the end of the war the establishment of the socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia with the constitution of 1946 officially made Bosnia and Herzegovina one of six Constituent Republic’s in the new state topic socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia 1945 to 1992 topic due to its central geographic position within the Yugoslavian Federation post-war Bosnia was selected as a base for the development of the military defense industry this contributed to a large concentration of arms and military personnel in Bosnia a significant factor in the war that followed the breakup of Yugoslavia in the 1990s however Bosnia’s existence within Yugoslavia for the large part was a peaceful and very prosperous country with high employment a strong industrial and export oriented economy good education system and social and medical security for every citizen of SR Bosnia and Herzegovina several international corporations operated in Bosnia Volkswagen car factory in Sarajevo from 1972 Coca Cola from 1975 SKF Sweden from 1967 Marlboro a tobacco factory in Sarajevo and holiday in hotels Sarajevo was the site of the 1984 Winter Olympics during the 1950s and 1960s Bosnia was a political backwater of the Republic of Yugoslavia in the 1970s a strong Bosnian political elite arose fueled in part by Tito s leadership in the non-aligned movement and Bosnian serving in Yugoslavia s diplomatic corps while working within the socialist system politicians such as Jamal BG dick Franco McCulloch and ham be opposed Iraq reinforced and protected the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina their efforts proved key during the turbulent period following Tito’s death in 1980 and are today considered some of the early steps towards Bosnian independence however the Republic did not escape the increasingly nationalistic climate of the time with the fall of the Soviet Union and the start of the breakup of Yugoslavia doctrine of Tolerance began to lose its potency creating an opportunity for nationalist elements in the society to spread their influence topic Bosnian war 1992 to 1995 topic on the 18th of November 1990 multi-party parliamentary elections were held throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina a second round followed on the 25th of November resulting in a National Assembly where communist power was replaced by a coalition of three ethnically based parties following Slovenia and Croatia x’d Eckler a shion’s of independence from Yugoslavia a significant split developed among the residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina on the issue of whether to remain within Yugoslavia overwhelmingly favored by Serbs or seek independence overwhelmingly favored by Bosniaks and Croats the Serb members of parliament consisting mainly of the Serb Democratic Party members abandoned the central Parliament in Sarajevo and formed the Assembly of the Serb people of Bosnia and Herzegovina on the 24th of October 1991 which marked the end of the Tri ethnic coalition that governed after the elections in 1990 this assembly established the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina on the 9th of January 1992 which was renamed Republica srp ska in August 1992 on the 18th of November 1991 the party branch in Bosnia and Herzegovina of the ruling party in the Republic of Croatia the Croatian Democratic Union HDZ proclaimed the existence of the croatian community of Herzig Bosnia with the Croatian Defense Council hvo as its military branch it went unrecognized by the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina which declared it illegal a declaration of the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina on the 15th of October 1991 was followed by a referendum for independence on the 29th of February the 1st of march 1992 which was boycotted by the great majority of Serbs the turnout in the independence referendum was sixty three point four percent and ninety nine point seven percent of voters voted for independence Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence on the 3rd of march 1992 and received international recognition the following month on the 6th of april 1992 the republic of bosnia and herzegovina was subsequently admitted as a member state of the United Nations on the 22nd of May 1992 serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic and Croatian leader Franjo Tudjman are believed to have agreed on a partition of Bosnia and Herzegovina in March 1991 with the aim of establishing greater Serbia and Greater Croatia following Bosnia and Herzegovina s declaration of independence Bosnian Serb militias mobilized in different parts of the country government forces were poorly equipped and unprepared for the war international recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina increased diplomatic pressure for the Yugoslav People’s Army JMA to withdraw from the Republic s territory which they officially did in June 1992 the Bosnian Serb members of the JMA simply changed insignia formed the army of republika srp ska VRS and continued fighting armed and equipped from J&A stockpiles in Bosnia supported by volunteers and various paramilitary forces from Serbia and receiving extensive humanitarian logistical and financial support from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Republica srp ska s offensives in 1992 managed to place much of the country under its control the bosnian serb advance was accompanied by the ethnic cleansing of Bosniaks and bosnian croats from vrs controlled areas dozens of concentration camps were established in which inmates were subjected to violence and abuse including rape the ethnic cleansing culminated in the cerebra Nitze massacre of more than 8000 Bosniak men and boys in july 1995 which was ruled to have been a genocide by the ICTY bosnia and bosnian Croat forces also committed war crimes against civilians from different ethnic groups though on a smaller scale most of the Bosnian croat atrocities were committed during the Bosniak Croat war a sub conflict of the Bosnian war that pitted the Arba against the H vo the Bosniak Croat conflict ended in March 1994 with the signing of the Washington agreement leading to the creation of a joint bozniak Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina which Amalgamated hvo held territory with that held by the Arba following the cerebra Nitze massacre nato launched a bombing campaign against república RP ska in august 1995 the bombing together with a joint hv h vo arbor ground offensive in western bosnia convinced the bosnian serb leadership to consider a negotiated settlement which manifested itself in the Dayton Agreement of December 1995 it brought an end to active combat and roughly established the basic political structure of the present-day state a nato-led peacekeeping force was immediately dispatched to the country to enforce the agreement an estimated 100,000 people were killed in the war about two-thirds of whom were bosniak an additional million citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina of all ethnicities were displaced the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia ICTY has ruled the conflict involved the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia subsequently Serbia and Montenegro as well as Croatia dozens of bosnian serb officials and soldiers have been convicted for their role in war crimes and crimes against humanity during the conflict as well as for the genocide in Srebrenica several high-ranking Croat and bozniak officials have also been convicted victims remains continued to be unearthed after the war the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina brought a lawsuit against Serbia before the International Court of Justice ICJ accusing the country of genocide in 2007 the ICJ exonerated Serbia of direct responsibility for the genocide committed by Bosnian Serb forces in cerebra Nitza but concluded the country had not done enough to prevent the massacre topic protests in 2014 topic on the 4th of February 2014 the protests against the government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina one of the country’s two entities dubbed the Bosnian Spring the name being taken from the Arab Spring began in the northern town of Tuzla workers from several factories that had been privatized and had gone bankrupt United to demand action over jobs and unpaid salaries and Pensions soon protests spread to the rest of the Federation with violent clashes reported in close to 20 towns the biggest of which were Sarajevo Zeneca mostar beeyotch birch co in Tuzla the bosnian news media reported hundreds of people had been injured during the protests including dozens of police officers with bursts of violence in Sarajevo in the northern city of Tuzla in mostar in the south and in Zenica in central bosnia the same level of unrest or activism did not occur in the republic asar p ska but hundreds of people also gathered in support of protests in the town of Banja Luka against its separate government the protests marked the largest outbreak of public anger over high unemployment in two decades of political inertia in the country since the end of the bosnian war in 1995 topic geography topic Bosnia is in the Western Balkans bordering Croatia 932 kilometers are 579 miles to the north and west Serbia 302 kilometers are 188 miles to the east and Montenegro 225 kilometers are 140 miles to the southeast it has a coastline about 20 kilometers 12 miles long surrounding the city of Miam it lies between latitudes 42 degrees and 46 degrees north and longitudes 15 degrees and 20 degrees east the country’s name comes from the two regions Bosnia and Herzegovina separated by a vaguely defined border Bosnia occupies the northern areas roughly four-fifths of the entire country and Herzegovina occupies the rest of the southern part of the country the country is mostly mountainous encompassing the central Dinaric Alps the northeastern parts reach into the Pannonian plain while in the south it borders the Adriatic the Dinaric Alps generally run in a southeast Northwest direction and get hired towards the south the highest point of the country is the peak of MAG lick at 2386 metres 7820 feet on the Montenegrin border major mountains include Gazzara Grimek Vlasic vers Nika french romania jahorina biallas Nika and tres kavacha the geological composition of the Dinaric chain of mountains in Bosnia consists primarily of limestone including Mesozoic limestone with deposits of iron coal zinc manganese bauxite LED and salt present in some areas especially in central and northern Bosnia overall close to 50% of Bosnia and Herzegovina is forested most forest areas are in the centre east and west parts of Bosnia Herzegovina has drier Mediterranean climate with dominant karst topography northern Bosnia posavina contains very fertile agricultural land along the river Sava and the corresponding area is heavily farmed this farmland is a part of the Pannonian plain stretching into neighboring Croatia and Serbia the country has only 20 kilometers 12 miles of coastline around the town of Neum in the Herzegovina neretva can’t although the city is surrounded by Croatian peninsulas by international law Bosnia and Herzegovina has a right of passage to the outer sea Sarajevo is the capital and largest city other major cities are Banja Luka and beeyotch in the northwest region known as boh sans Katrina vigil Gina and Tuzla in the Northeast zenica in the central part of Bosnia and most are the largest city in Herzegovina there are seven major rivers in Bosnia and Herzegovina the Sava is the largest river of the country and forms its northern natural border with Croatia it drains 76% of the country’s territory into the Danube and then the Black Sea Bosnia and Herzegovina as a member of the International Commission for the protection of the Danube River I CPD are the UNA sanda and verbis are right tributaries of Sava river they are in the northwestern region of bosanski Crenna the Bosna river gave its name to the country and as the longest river fully contained within it it stretches through central bosnia from its source near Sarajevo to Sava in the North the Dena flows through the eastern part of Bosnia and for the most part it forms a natural border with Serbia the Neretva is the major river of Herzegovina and the only major river that flows south into the Adriatic Sea phyto geographically Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to the boreal kingdom and is shared between the illyrian province of the circum boreal region and adriatic province of the mediterranean region according to the World Wide Fund for Nature the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina can be subdivided into three ecoregions the Pannonian mixed forests Dinaric mountains mixed forests and illyrian deciduous forests topic government topic Bosnia and Herzegovina as a liberal democracy it has several levels of political structuring according to the date and accord the most important of these levels is the division of the country into two entities Republica srp ska and the federation of bosnia and herzegovina the federation of bosnia and herzegovina covers 51% of Bosnia and Herzegovina s total area while república a Sarpy ska covers 49% the entities based largely on the territories held by the two warring sides at the time were formally established by the Dayton peace agreement in 1995 because of the tremendous changes in Bosnia and Herzegovina s ethnic structure since 1996 the power of the entities relative to the state government has decreased significantly nonetheless entities still have numerous powers to themselves the birch co district in the north of the country was created in 2000 out of land from both entities it officially belongs to both but is governed by neither and functions under a decentralized system of local government for election purposes birch Co district voters can choose to participate in either the Federation or república as RPS ka elections the birch code district has been praised for maintaining a multi-ethnic population and a level of prosperity significantly above the national average the third level of Bosnia and her to go Veena’s political subdivision as manifested in Canton’s they are unique to the federation of bosnia and herzegovina entity which consists of ten of them each has a candle government which is under the law of the federation as a whole some Canton’s are ethnically mixed and have special laws to ensure the Equality of all constituent people the fourth level of political division in Bosnia and Herzegovina as the municipality the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into 74 municipalities and república a sarpy ska into 63 municipalities also have their own local government and are typically based on the most significant city or place in their territory as such many municipalities have a long and history with their present boundaries some others however were only created following the recent war after traditional municipalities were split by the inter entity boundary line each Canton in the federation of bosnia and herzegovina consists of several municipalities which are divided into local communities besides entities Canton’s and municipalities Bosnia and Herzegovina also has four official cities these are Banja Luka mostar Sarajevo and east sarajevo the territory and government of the cities of Banja Luka and mostar corresponds to the municipalities of the same name while the cities of Sarajevo and east sarajevo officially consists of several municipalities cities have their own city government whose power is in between that of the municipalities and Canton’s or the entity in the case of Republica srp ska as a result of the Dayton Accords the civilian peace implementation is supervised by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina selected by the peace implementation Council the High Representative has many governmental and legislative powers including the dismissal of elected and non-elected officials more recently several central institutions have been established such as defense ministry security ministry state court indirect taxation service and so on in the process of transferring part of the jurisdiction from the entities to the state the representation of the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina is by elites who represent the country’s three major groups with each having a guaranteed share of power the chair of the presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina rotates among three members Bosniak Serb Croat each elected as the chair for an eight month term within their four-year term as a member the three members of the presidency are elected directly by the people with Federation voters voting for the Bosniak and the Croat and the Republica are PS ka voters for the Serb the chair of the Council of Ministers is nominated by the presidency and approved by the House of Representatives he or she is then responsible for appointing a foreign minister Minister of Foreign Trade and others as appropriate the Parliamentary Assembly is the lawmaking body in Bosnia and it consists of two houses the house of peoples in the House of Representatives the house of people’s has 15 delegates chosen by Parliament’s of the entities two-thirds of which come from the Federation five Croat and five Bosniaks and one-third from the republican rps ka five Serbs the House of Representatives is composed of 42 members elected by the people under a form of proportional representation PR two-thirds elected from the Federation and one-third elected from the república RPS ka the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina as the supreme final arbiter of legal matters it is composed of nine members four members are selected by the house of representatives of the Federation two by the Assembly of the Republic srp ska and three by the president of the European Court of Human Rights after consultation with the presidency but cannot be Bosnian citizens however the highest political authority in the country is the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina the chief executive officer for the International civilian presence in the country and is selected by the European Union since 1995 the High Representative has been able to bypass the elected Parliamentary Assembly and since 1997 has been able to remove elected officials the method selected by the High Representative have been criticised as undemocratic international supervision is to end when the country is deemed politically and democratically stable and self-sustaining military topic the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina OSBI H were unified into a single entity in 2005 with the merger of the army of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the army of republika srp ska which had defended their respective regions the Ministry of Defence was founded in 2004 the Bosnian military consists of the Bosnian ground forces an Air Force and air defence the ground forces number fourteen thousand 725 active and 7,000 reserve personnel they are armed with a mix of American Yugoslavian Soviet and European made weaponry vehicles and military equipment the Air Force and Air Defense Forces have 3,000 personnel and about 62 aircraft the air defense forces operate MANPADS handheld missiles surface-to-air missile Sam batteries anti-aircraft cannons and radar the army has recently adopted remodeled marpat uniforms used by Bosnian soldiers serving with ISAF in Afghanistan a domestic production program is now underway to ensure that army units are equipped with the correct ammunition beginning in 2007 the Ministry of Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina undertook the Army’s first-ever international assistance mission enlisting the military to serve with ISAF peace missions to Afghanistan Iraq and the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2007 five officers acting as officers advisors served in the Democratic Republic of Congo 45 soldiers mostly acting as base security and medical assistants served in Afghanistan 85 Bosnian soldiers served as base security in Iraq occasionally conducting infantry patrols there as well all three deployed groups have been commended by their respective international forces as well as the Ministry of Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina the international assistance operations are still ongoing the Air Force and anti-aircraft defense brigade of Bosnia and Herzegovina was formed when elements of the army of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the república RPS kaa Air Force were merged in 2006 the Air Force has seen improvements in the last few years with added funds for aircraft repairs and improved cooperation with the ground forces as well as to the citizens of the country the Ministry of Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina is pursuing the acquisition of new aircraft including helicopters and perhaps even fighter jets topic foreign relations topic EU integration as one of the main political objectives of Bosnia and Herzegovina it initiated the stabilisation and Association process in 2007 countries participating in the SA P have been offered the possibility to become once they fulfill the necessary conditions Member States of the EU Bosnia and Herzegovina is therefore a potential candidate country for EU accession the implementation of the Dayton Accords of 1995 has focused the efforts of policy makers in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as the international community on regional stabilisation in the countries successors of the former Yugoslavia within Bosnia and Herzegovina relations with its neighbors of Croatia Serbia and Montenegro have been fairly stable since the signing of the Dayton Agreement in 1995 on the 23rd of April 2010 Bosnia and Herzegovina received the membership action plan from NATO which is the last step before full membership in the Alliance full membership was expected in 2014 or 2015 depending on the progress of reforms topic demographics topic according to the 1991 census Bosnia and Herzegovina had a population of four million three hundred seventy seven thousand while the 1996 UNHCR unofficial census showed a decrease to three million nine hundred twenty thousand large population migrations during the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s have caused demographic shifts in the country between 1991 and 2013 political disagreements made it impossible to organize a census a census had been planned for 2011 and then for 2012 but was delayed until October 2013 the 2013 census found a total population of 3 million 790 1622 people in 6 million households 585 thousand 411 fewer people than the 1991 census topic ethnic groups topic Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to three ethnic constituent peoples who are Bosniaks Serbs and Croats plus a number of smaller groups including Jews and Roma according to data from 2013 census published by the agency for statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosniaks constitute 1% of the population Serbs 8% crow X 3% and others form to 73 percent with the remaining respondents not declaring their ethnicity are not answering the census results are contested by the Republic as RPS ka Statistical Office and by Bosnian Serb politicians the dispute over the census concerns the inclusion of non permanent Bosnian residents in the figures which Republic as RPS KA officials oppose the European Union Statistics Office Eurostat concluded in May 2016 that the census methodology used by the Bosnian statistical agency is in line with international recommendations topic religion topic according to the 2013 census Islam as the majority faith in Bosnia and Herzegovina making up 51% of the population with Sunni Muslims making up 38% and the rest are either Shia or follow other dominations or don t identify with any domination 46% of the population identify as Christian of these the serbian orthodox church makes up the largest group accounting for 31% of the population of whom most identify as Serbs and the Roman Catholic Church 15% of whom most identify as Croats the smallest groups are agnosticism 0.3% atheism 0.8% and other percent with the remainder not declaring their religion or not answering percent a 2012 survey found 54% of Bosnia s Muslims are non-denominational muslims while 38% follow Sunnism topic languages topic Bosnia s Constitution does not specify any official languages however academics Hillary footed and Michael Kelly note the Dayton Agreement states it is done in Bosnian Croatian English and Serbian and they described this as the de facto recognition of three official languages at the state level the equal status of Bosnian Serbian and Croatian was verified by the Constitutional Court in 2000 it ruled the provisions of the Federation and Republic as RPS KA constitutions on language were incompatible with the state constitution since they only recognized Bosniak and croatian in the case of the federation and serbian in the case of Republica srp ska as official languages at the entity level as a result the wording of the entity constitutions was changed and all three languages were made official in both entities the three standard languages are fully mutually intelligible and are known collectively under the appellation of serbo-croatian despite this term not being formally recognized in the country use of one of the three languages has become a marker of ethnic identity Michael Kelley and Katherine Baker argue the three official languages of today s Bosnian state represent the symbolic assertion of national identity over the pragmatism of mutual intelligibility according to the 1992 European charter for regional or minority languages Bosnia and Herzegovina recognises the following minority languages Albanian Montenegrin Czech Italian King garyun Macedonian German Polish Romani romanian russian slovak slovenian and jewish Yiddish and Ladino the German minority in Bosnia and Herzegovina are mostly remnants of Dena schwaben Danube Swabians who settled in the area after the Habsburg monarchy claimed the Balkans from the Ottoman Empire due to expulsion and forced assimilation after the two world wars the number of ethnic Germans in Bosnia and Herzegovina was drastically diminished in a 2013 census 52 point 86% of the population consider their mother-tongue Bosnian 6% Serbian 14.6% Croatian and 7% another language with 0.21% not giving an answer topic cities topic Sarajevo is home to 390 5133 inhabitants in its urban area which comprises the city of Sarajevo as well as municipalities of elisa vogue Oska east oakna elisa i stock no novo sarajevo and stoke nice stari grad the metro area has a population of five hundred fifty five thousand two hundred ten and includes Sarajevo Canton east sarajevo and municipalities Brezza kissel jack cress fo and Visoko topic economy topic Bosnia faces the dual problem of rebuilding a war-torn country and introducing transitional liberal market reforms to its formerly mixed economy one legacy of the previous era is a strong industry under former republic president jamal be jeddak and sfry president Josip Broz Tito metal industries were promoted in the Republic resulting in the development of a large share of Yugoslavia’s plants as are Bosnia and Herzegovina had a very strong industrial export oriented economy in the 1970s and 1980s with large-scale exports worth millions of US dollar for most of Bosnia s history agriculture has been conducted on privately owned farms fresh food has traditionally been exported from the Republic the war in the 1990s caused a dramatic change in the Bosnian economy GDP fell by 60% and the destruction of physical infrastructure devastated the economy with much of the production capacity unrestored the bosnian economy still faces considerable difficulties figures showed GDP and per capita income increased 10 percent from 2003 to 2004 this in Bosnia s shrinking national debt being negative trends and high unemployment 38.7% in a large trade deficit remained cause for concern the national currency is that euro pegged convertible mark km controlled by the currency board annual inflation is the lowest relative to other countries in the region at percent in 2004 the International debt was billion dollars as on the 31st of December 2014 real GDP growth rate was 5 percent for 2004 according to the bosnian central bank of BiH and statistical office of bosnia and herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina has displayed positive progress in the previous years which decisively moved its place from the lowest income equality rank of income equality rankings 14 out of 193 nations according to Eurostat data Bosnia and Herzegovina’s PPS GDP per capita stood at 29% of the EU average in 2010 the International Monetary Fund IMF announced a loan to Bosnia worth 500 million dollars to be delivered by standby arrangement this was scheduled to be approved in September 2012 overall value of foreign direct investment 1999 to 2014 1999 166 million euros mm 159 million euros 2001 133 million euros 2002 282 million euros 2003 338 million euros 2004 534 million euros 2005 421 million euros 2006 556 million euros 2007 to 9 billion euros 2008 684 million euros 2009 180 million euros 2010 307 million euros 2011 357 million euros 2012 273 million euros 2013 214 million euros 2014 419 euros millionth top investor countries May 1994 2 December 2013 Austria to 9 billion euros Serbia 2 billion euros Croatia 733 million euros Slovenia 499 million euros Russia 343 million euros Germany 333 million euros Switzerland 273 million euros netherlands 206 million euros foreign investments by sector fur may 1994 to december 2013 32% manufacturing 22% banking 15% telecommunication 11% trade 5% estate 4% services 11% other the United States Embassy in Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina produces the country commercial guide an annual report that delivers a comprehensive look at Bosnia and her to go Venus commercial and economic environment using economic political and market analysis it can be viewed on embassy Sarajevo’s website by some estimates gray economy as twenty five point five percent of GDP in 2017 exports grew by seventeen percent when compared to the previous year totaling five point six five billion euros the total volume of foreign trade in 2017 amounted to fourteen point nine seven billion euros and increased by 14 percent compared to the previous year imports of goods increased by 12% and amounted to nine point three two billion euros the coverage of imports by exports has increased by three percent compared to the previous year and now it is 61 percent in 2017 Bosnia and Herzegovina mostly exported car seats electricity processed wood aluminum and furniture in the same year it mostly imported crude oil automobiles motor oil coal and briquettes the unemployment rate in 2017 was twenty point five percent but the Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies is predicting falling unemployment rate for the next few years in 2018 the unemployment should be nineteen point four percent and it should further fall to 18 point eight percent in 2019 in 2020 the unemployment rate should go down to eighteen point three percent on December 31st 2017 Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina issued the report on public debt of Bosnia and Herzegovina stating the public debt was reduced by three hundred eighty nine point nine seven million euros or by more than six percent when compared to December 31st 2016 by the end of 2017 public debt was 2 billion euros which amounted to thirty five point six percent of GDP as of December 31st 2017 there were thirty two thousand two hundred ninety two registered companies in the country which together had revenues of thirty three point five seven two billion euros that same year in 2017 the country received three hundred ninety seven point three five million euros in foreign direct investment which equals to two point five percent of the GDP in 2017 Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked third in the world in terms of the number of new jobs created by foreign investment relative to the number of inhabitants in the first nine months of 2018 Bosnia and Herzegovina exported goods worth eight point eight zero nine billion km four point five zero eight billion euros which is eight point eight percent higher than in the same period in 2017 while imports amounted to fourteen point two eight seven billion km seven point three one billion euros which is six point nine percent higher the average price of new apartments sold in the country in the first six months of 2018 as 1639 kilometers eight hundred eighty six euros and thirty one cents per square metre this represents a jump of three point five percent from the previous year on June 30th 2018 public debt of Bosnia and Herzegovina amounted to about six point zero four billion euros of which external debt is 70 point five six percent while the internal debt is twenty nine point four percent of total public indebtedness the share of public debt in gross domestic product as thirty four point nine two percent in the first seven months of 2018 eight hundred eleven thousand six hundred sixty tourists visited the country a 12 point two percent jump when compared to the first seven months of 2017 in the first nine months of 2018 one million one hundred fifty three thousand seven hundred for tourists visited Bosnia Herzegovina an increase of twelve point four percent and had two million four hundred thirty five thousand three hundred forty overnight hotel stays a fourteen percent increase from the previous year also seventy two point two percent of the tourists came from foreign trees topic transport topic Sarajevo International Airport IATA sjj ICAO ELQ USA also known as but Mir Airport is the main International Airport in Bosnia and Herzegovina located NM kilometers miles southwest of the railway station in the city of Sarajevo in the suburb of but Mir railway operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina are successors of the Yugoslav railways within the country boundaries following independence from the former Yugoslavia in 1992 topic communications topic the Bosnian communications market was fully liberalized in January 2006 there are three landline telephone providers although each one predominantly serves apart aisle services are provided by three operators with nationwide services mobile data services are also available including high-speed edge and 3G services aa Slobodan J Liberation founded in 1943 is one of the country’s longest running continuously circulating newspapers there are many national publications only some of which include the denebians daily voice founded in 1995 and jus turn J no Veen Morning News in circulation in Sarajevo other local periodicals include the Croatian newspaper hrvatski reject and the Bosnian magazine start as well as the weekly newspapers Slobodan abbas ‘no free bosnia and bh donnie bh days no V playmon a monthly magazine is the most left-wing publication the international news station al-jazeera maintains a sister channel that caters to the Balkan region al Jazeera Balkans broadcasting out of and based in Sarajevo since 2014 the n1 platform began broadcasting as an affiliate of CNN International and has headquarters in Sarajevo Zagreb and Belgrade additionally the country is the most liberal in terms of freedom of the press in the region ranking 43rd internationally as of December 2017 there are three million 64,000 seventy-two Internet users in the country or eighty six point seven seven percent of the entire population topic tourism topic according to projections by the World Tourism Organization Bosnia and Herzegovina will have the third highest tourism growth rate in the world between 1995 and 2020 in 2017 1 million three hundred seven thousand three hundred nineteen tourists visited Bosnia and Herzegovina an increase of percent and had two million six hundred seventy seven thousand one hundred twenty five overnight hotel stays a 12 point three percent increase from the previous year seventy one point five percent of the tourists came from foreign countries in 2006 when ranking the best cities in the world Lonely Planet placed Sarajevo the national capital and host of the 1984 Winter Olympic Games as number 43 ahead of Dubrovnik at number 59 Ljubljana at number 84 bled at number 90 Belgrade at number 113 and Zagreb at number 135 tourism in Sarajevo is chiefly focused on historical religious and cultural aspects in 2010 Lonely Planet s best in travel nominated it as one of the top ten cities to visit that year Sarajevo also won travel blog Fox Nomad s best city to visit competition in 2012 beating more than 100 other cities around the entire world madhu Georgie has become one of the most popular pilgrimage sites for Christians in the world and has turned into Europe’s third most important religious place where each year more than 1 million people visit it has been estimated that 30 million pilgrims have come to madhu Georgie since the reputed apparitions began in 1981 Bosnia has also become an increasingly popular skiing and ecotourism destination Bosnia and Herzegovina remains one of the last undiscovered natural regions of the southern area of the Alps with vast tracts of wild and untouched nature attracting adventurers and nature lovers National Geographic magazine named Bosnia and Herzegovina as the best mountain biking adventure destination for 2012 the central bosnian Dinaric Alps are favored by hikers and Mountaineers containing both Mediterranean and Alpine climates whitewater rafting is somewhat of a national time with three rivers including the deepest river canyon in Europe the Tara River Canyon most recently The Huffington Post named Bosnia and Herzegovina the ninth greatest adventure in the world for 2013 adding that the country boasts the cleanest water and air in Europe the greatest untouched forests and the most wildlife the best way to experience as the three rivers trip which pearls through the best the Balkans have to offer topic tourist attractions topic some of the tourist attractions in Bosnia and Herzegovina include Sarajevo the Olympic city or European Jerusalem the scientific cultural tourist in commercial center of Bosnia and Herzegovina ratnick old town and vigil at Abijah fortress in Sarajevo Shrine of Our Lady of Medjugorje with annual youth festival the site of a Marian apparition and subsequent Catholic pilgrimage destination most artha city on neretva or city of sunshine the location of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of stari most in Old Town mostar vice’ grant location of the unesco world heritage site of the Mehmed pasa Sokolova courage Banja Luka green city with sites such as the castell fortress and ferrata Hamas beeyotch and the waterfalls of the river Oona within una national park jackie city of the bosnian kings and the place where the federal people’s republic of yugoslavia was founded pliva lakes and waterfall Prijedor featuring its old city mosque Gazzara National Park and at Emory Kovac Bosnia’s largest world war ii monument the salt lakes of Tuzla birthplace of mesa salaam avec the nerd the river and the RAC indica river canyons in upper neretva the tribe is at River and its waterfalls at cravaack ax and cocasa the buna with its spring and historic town of blagging the lower Terra River Canyon the deepest Canyon in Europe such Jessica National Park featuring the ancient forests of Peru Sokka one of the last two remaining primeval forests in Europe and the suggester River Canyon petit edge historical village Mount Balazs Nica and jahorina sights used during 14th Olympic Winter Games in 1984 neum the only coastal city in Bosnia and Herzegovina with direct access to the Adriatic Sea Doughboy and its thirteenth century fortress stoic featuring the big oven a neighborhood and randomly tombstones Visoko city of the bosnian nobility and monarchy historical capital the kingdom of Bosnia and the site of the alleged Bosnian pyramids for Cosco lake in fojnica tes on one of bosnia’s oldest known cities fidgel Jena known for its agriculture and ethnic village Stanisic Lukovic featuring modrich Lake the largest artificial lake in Bosnia and Herzegovina travnik the birthplace of evo and Rick and once the capital city of the Bosnia islet Shiblon oka Museum of battle of neretva an old bridge destroyed by Yugoslavia Army in Second World War ostrich at castle a 16th century castle built by the Ottoman Empire and later expanded by the House of Habsburg konjac featuring Tito’s underground nuclear bunker topic education topic higher education has a long and rich tradition in Bosnia and Herzegovina the first bespoke higher education institution was a school of Sufi philosophy established by Ghazi hüsrev Beggan 1531 numerous other religious schools then followed in 1887 under the austro-hungarian Empire the Sharia law school began a five-year program in the 1940s the University of Sarajevo became the city’s first secular higher education Institute in the 1950s post bachelor rate graduate degrees became available severely damaged during the war it was recently rebuilt in partnership with more than 40 other universities there are various other institutions of higher education including University Jamal BG Dec of mostar university of Banja Luka university of mostar university of east sarajevo university of Tuzla american university in bosnia and herzegovina and the academy of sciences and arts of bosnia and herzegovina which is held in high regard as one of the most prestigious creative arts academies in the region also Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to several private and international higher education institutions some of which are Sarajevo School of Science and Technology International University of Sarajevo American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Graduate School of Business international Burch University primary schooling lasts for nine years secondary education is provided by general and technical secondary schools typically gymnasiums where studies typically lasts for four years all forms of secondary schooling include an element of vocational training pupils graduating from general secondary schools obtain the matura and can enroll in any tertiary educational institution or Academy by passing a qualification examination prescribed by the governing body or institution students graduating technical subjects obtain a diploma topic culture topic topic architecture topic the architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely influenced by four major periods where political and social changes influence the creation of distinct cultural and architectural habits of the population each period made its influence felt and contributed to a greater diversity of cultures and architectural language in this region topic media topic some television magazines and newspapers in Bosnia and Herzegovina are state-owned and some are for-profit corporations funded by advertising subscription and other sales related revenues the constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina guarantees freedom of speech as a country in transition with a post-war legacy and a complex domestic political structure Bosnia and her to go Veena’s media system is under transformation in the early post-war period 1995 to 2005 media development was guided mainly by international donors and cooperation agencies who invested to help reconstruct diversify democratize and professionalized media outlets post-war developments included the establishment of an independent communication regulatory agency the adoption of a press code the establishment of the press Council the decriminalization of label and defamation the introduction of a rather advanced freedom of access to information law and the creation of a public service broadcasting system from the formerly state-owned broadcaster yet internationally backed positive developments have been often obstructed by domestic elites and the professionalization of media and journalists has proceeded only slowly high levels of partisanship and linkages between the media and the political systems hinder the adherence to professional code of conduct topic literature topic Bosnia and Herzegovina has a rich literature including the Nobel prize-winner Evo Andric and poets such as Croat Anton Branco Simic Alexis antic yo’ve induja can mock dizdar writers such as Sulaco tops ik Mesa Salam avec semester mehmedovic mil Jenko Djokovic s ox samokov Lea svet Begbie sedgwick Abdullah sidrón Petter Kasich Alexander hemin and Ned’s ad I presume avec the national theater was found in 1919 in Sarajevo and its first director was the dramatist branislav music magazines such as Novi Plamen or sorry EV skis vests k are some of the more prominent publications covering cultural and literary themes topic art topic the art of Bosnia and Herzegovina was always evolving and ranged from the original medieval tombstones called statue to paintings in coach romantic court however only with the arrival of austro-hungarians did the painting Renaissance in Bosnia really begin to flourish the first educated artists from European academies appeared with the beginning of the 20th century among those are gabrielle your kick Pettersen roman Petrovic and Lazar DeLuca after World War two artists like Merced Berber and soffit Zack rose in popularity in 2007 ARA e VI a Museum of Contemporary Art that includes works by renowned world artists was founded in Sarajevo topic music topic typical bosnian and herzegovinian songs are Ganga Rara and the traditional Slavic music for the folk dances such as Colo and from ottoman era the most popular assemble Inka pop and rock music has a tradition here as well with the more famous musicians including Dino’s on deck Goran Borrego Vic Devoran Popovic Kamal Monty no strop Co colic el Vila Kovac IDO Magica Hari Mata Hari and Dino Merlin other composers such as dort milkovic aldino Horace’s Inuvik cornell each gavage and many pop and rock bands for example Paciello Dogma serve nau Buca divya ja goat index e play v ork star is a brand j no poo sanjay ambassador to be OSA collective who were among the leading ones in the former Yugoslavia Bosnia is home to the composer Doosan sestak the creator of the national anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina and father of singer Maria Sestak to the world known jazz musician educator and Bosnian jazz ambassadors Sinan Aleman avec composer Sasha Lucic and pianist susato Pyrrhic in the villages especially in Herzegovina Bosniaks Serbs and Croats play the ancient ghusl the ghusl is used mainly to recite epic poems in a usually dramatic tone probably the most distinctive and identifiably Bosnian of music said the length as a kind of emotional melancholic folk song that often describes sad subjects such as love and loss the death of a dear person or heartbreak sevdalinka ‘z were traditionally performed with a sass a Turkish string instrument which was later replaced by the accordion however the more modern arrangement to the derision of some purists is typically a vocalist accompanied by the accordion along with snare drums upright bass guitars clarinets and violins rural folk traditions in Bosnia and Herzegovina include the shouted polyphonic Ganga and Ravan of PJ’s me flat song styles as well as instruments like a drone less bagpipe wooden flute and sargo jah the ghusl an instrument found throughout the balkans is also used to accompany ancient Slavic epic poems there are also Bosnian folk songs in the ladino language derived from the area’s jewish population Bosnian roots music came from middle Bosnia posavina the Dena Valley and kaliesha it is usually performed by singers with two violinists in a sarge a player these bands first appeared around World War one and became popular in the 1960s this is the third oldest music following after the sevdalinka and Alya self-taught people mostly in two or three members of the different choices of old instruments mostly in the violin sacking SAS drums flutes Cyril or wooden flute as others have already called the original performers of Bosnian music that cannot be written notes transmitted by ear from generation to generation family is usually hereditary it is thought to be brought from Persia khaleesi tribe that settled in the area of presents trekking ski valleys and hence probably the name kaliesha in this part of Bosnia it is the most common again it became the leader of first world war onwards as well as 60 years in the field sprechen sido line this kind of music was enjoyed by all three peoples in Bosnia Bosniaks Croat sand Serbs and it contributed a lot to reconcile people socializing entertainment and other organizations through festive ala in kaliesha it’s maintained each year with the Bosnian festival original music studio Chemex firm Jamal Jia Novick from Zoo Vinnie’s together with his artists brought this kind of music to perfection at the end 20th century with its entirely new form of modernity it is most common in the Tuzla Canton and the cradle of this music cities of Venice was named bosnian town of original music songs are performed preferably in a diphthong the first and second voice which is a special secret performance of this music and some performers sing in Trog lasts you as they do khaleesi ski triple that was recorded in 1968 as the first written record of the tone on the album along with Higurashi no naku topic cinema and theater topic Sarajevo is internationally renowned for its eclectic and diverse selection of festivals the Sarajevo Film Festival was established in 1995 during the Bosnian war and has become the premier and largest film festival in the Balkans in Southeast Europe Bosnia has a rich cinematic and film heritage dating back to the kingdom of Yugoslavia many bosnian filmmakers have achieved international prominence and some have won international awards ranging from the academy awards to multiple Palme D or ‘s and golden bears some notable Bosnian filmmakers screenwriters and cinematographers are Donny’s Tana vaq known for the Academy Award and Golden Globe award-winning 2001 film no man s land and silver bear Grand Jury Prize winning 2016 film death in Sarajevo Emir castor Itza went to Palme d’Or at can jazz meliza Bannock won Golden Bear Zola Co tops Academy R K Novick Dino Mustafa Benjamin Filipovic jazz meme dizdar PJ er zaleka Sir John voltic Ida biquette cetera topic cuisine topic Bosnian cuisine uses many spices in moderate quantities most dishes are light as they are cooked in lots of water the sauces are fully natural consisting of little more than the natural juices of the vegetables in the dish typical ingredients include tomatoes potatoes onions garlic peppers cucumbers carrots cabbage mushrooms spinach zucchini dried beans fresh beans plums milk paprika and cream called pública bosnian cuisine is balanced between Western and Eastern influences as a result of the Ottoman administration for almost 500 years bosnian food is closely related to Turkish Greek and other former Ottoman and Mediterranean cuisines however because of years of Austrian rule there are many influences from Central Europe typical meat dishes include primarily beef and lamb some local specialties are cevapi barrack dolma Sarma the love goulash oddvar and a whole range of eastern sweets cevapi has a grilled dish of minced meat a type of kebab popular in former yugoslavia and considered a national dish in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia local wines come from Herzegovina where the climate is suitable for growing grapes herzegovinian Loza similar to italian grappa but less sweet is very popular plum rakia or apple Jabu kavacha alcohol beverages are produced in the north in the south distilleries used to produce vast quantities of brandy and supply all of ex-yugoslavia haul factory’s brandy is the base of most alcoholic drinks topic leisure activities topic coffee houses where Bosnian coffee has served in Jezza with rahat locum and sugar cubes proliferate Sarajevo and every city in the country coffee drinking is a favorite Bosnian pastime and part of the culture Bosnia and Herzegovina is the ninth country in the entire world by per capita coffee consumption topic sports topic Bosnia and Herzegovina has produced many athletes both as a state in Yugoslavia and independently after 1992 the most important international sporting event in the history of Bosnia and Herzegovina was the 14th Winter Olympics held in Sarajevo from 7 to the 19th of February 1984 the Borak handball club has won seven Yugoslavian ball championships as well as the European Championship Cup in 1976 and the International handball Federation Cup in 1991 a melmac Bosnian judoka became European champion in 2011 track and field athlete amel Tuukka won the bronze medal in 800 meters at the 2015 World Championships in hamza Alec won the silver medal in shotput at the 2013 European Indoor Championships the Bosna basketball club from Sarajevo were European champions in 1979 the Yugoslavs basketball team which won medals in every World Championship from 1963 through 1990 included Bosnian players such as FIBA Hall of Famers Drazen dalip ajik and mirza della basic Bosnia and Herzegovina regularly qualifies for the European Championship in basketball with players including Mirza teletovic Neha Davich in use of nur catch Bosnia and Herzegovina national u16 team won two gold medals in 2015 winning both 2015 European youth Summer Olympic Festival as well as 2015 FIBA Europe under-16 championship women s basketball club jedd in Stowe Ida from Tuzla one women s European club championship in 1989 and Ronchetti Cup final in 1990 led by razita Mooji Novik three times best female European basketball player and Mauro lactic the Bosnian chess team was champion of Yugoslavia seven times in addition to club Sky Bosna winning four european chess club cups chess grandmaster bor keep radhaji avec has also won two european championships the most impressive success of bosnian chess was runner-up position in chess olympiad of 1994 in moscow featuring grandmasters predrag nicole each Ivan Sokolov and boy Ankara jika middleweight boxer marriage in Venice has won several championships of Bosnia and Herzegovina Yugoslavian ships and the European Championship in 1978 he won the world title against Elijah Obed from the Bahamas association football is the most pop sport in Bosnia and Herzegovina it dates from 1903 but its popularity grew significantly after World War one Bosnian club’s FK Sarajevo and Zelazny char when the Yugoslavs championship while the Yugoslav national football team included Bosnian players of all ethnic backgrounds and generations such as soffits Usha CH zlatko Vivek Mehmed Baz dar avec de ver jozek Farrukh Hadzabe Jake predrag PASOK blush sliska Vic Vahid halilhodzic Doosan Bahji Vic Evita awesome Yosef Catalan ski Tomislav knez velum ur Samba Lac and numerous others the Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team played at the 2014 FIFA World Cup its first major tournament players on the team again includes notable players of all countries ethnic background such as then and now captain Zamir spa he is a vs Don Mesa movin Edin Dzeko defenders like onion Rajesh seed coalition itch and Tony soonish midfielders like mural mph and sainted Lula striker VDB Shevek and so on former Bosnian footballers include Hassan Salameh dick who became only the second Bosnian to ever win a UEFA Champions League trophy after Elvir Belgic he made 234 appearances and scored 31 goals for German club FC Bayern Munich sergej barbara’s who played for several clubs in the German Bundesliga including Borussia Dortmund Hamburger SV and Bayer Leverkusen was joint top scorer in the 2002 1 Bundesliga season with 22 goals Mihoko drove spent most of his career playing in Spain most notably with rial Scioscia Dodd and FC Barcelona LV r-rahim ik made 302 appearances for Russian club CSKA Moscow with whom he won the UEFA Cup in 2005 milena nicole each member of women s national team was 2013-14 UEFA women s champions league top scorer Bosnia and Herzegovina was the world champion of volleyball at the 2004 Summer Paralympics and volleyball at the 2012 Summer Paralympics many among those on the team lost their legs in the Bosnian war tennis is also gaining a lot of popularity after the recent successes of Damir jr and mirza basic at Grand Slam level other notable tennis players who represented Bosnia are Amer Delic in nirvana jus jigsaw cake topic see also topic outline of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia causation topic references topic topic bibliography topic topic external links topic CIA Bosnia and Herzegovina the World Factbook retrieved the 12th of February 2016 Bosnia and Herzegovina corruption profile from the business anti-corruption portal Bosnia and Herzegovina from UCB libraries govpubs Bosnia and Herzegovina at Facebook Bosnia and Herzegovina at Curly relevant laws of bosnia and herzegovina bosnia herzegovina profile from the BBC news Wikimedia atlas of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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